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2020 | 85 | 1 | 14-21

Article title

Motivation for Participation in Sports Based on Athletes in Team and Individual Sports

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  • Arak University, Arak, Iran
  • Arak University, Arak, Iran
  • Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran


  • Benar, N., & Loghmani, M. (2014). Factor Analysis of Teenage Athletes’ Goal Orientations and Sports Participation Motives in Leisure Time. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 2(1), 69-80.
  • Buonamano, R., Cei, A., & Mussino, A. (1995). Participation motivation in Italian youth sport. The sport psychologist, 9(3), 265-281.
  • Caglar, E., Asci, F.H., & Deliceoglu, G. (2009). Does participation motivation of youth soccer players change with regard to their perceived ability? Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health, 9(1), 18-22.
  • Cerar, K., Kondrič, M., Ochiana, N., & Sindik, J. (2017). Exercise Participation Motives and Engaging In Sports Activity among University of Ljubljana Students. Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences, 5(6), 794.
  • Cunningham, G.B., & Kwon, H. (2003). The theory of planned behaviour and intentions to attend a sport event. Sport Management Review, 6(2), 127-145.
  • Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
  • Del Pilar Vílchez, M., & De Francisco, C. (2017). Reduced Spanish version of participation motives questionnaire for exercise and sport: psychometric properties, social/sport differences. Journal of sports science & medicine, 16(3), 365.
  • Egli, T., Bland, H.W., Melton, B.F., & Czech, D.R. (2011). Influence of age, sex, and race on college students’ exercise motivation of physical activity. Journal of American college health, 59(5), 399-406.
  • Fortier, M.S., Vallerand, R.J., Brière, N.M., & Provencher, P.J. (1995). Competitive and recreational sport structures and gender: A test of their relationship with sport motivation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26(1), 24-39.
  • Frederick, C.M., & Ryan, R.M. (1993). Differences in motivation for sport and exercise and their relations with participation and mental health. Journal of sport behavior, 16(3), 124-146.
  • Gill, D.L., Gross, J.B., & Huddleston, S. (1983). Participation motivation in youth sports. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 14(1), 11-14.
  • Gürbuz, B., Altyntas, A., Asci, F., & Hülya, A. (2007). Participation motives of 9-15 years old Turkish soccer players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 7(10), 89-90.
  • Howard, S.J., Vella, S.A., & Cliff, D.P. (2018). Children’s sports participation and self-regulation: Bi-directional longitudinal associations. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 42, 140-147.
  • Jakobsen, A.M. (2014). Are There Differences in Motives Between Participants in Individual Sports Compared to Team Sports? LASE Journal of Sport Science, 5(2), 30-40.
  • Jones, G.W., Mackay, K.S., & Peters, D.M. (2006). Participation motivation in martial artists in the West Midlands region of England. Journal of sports science & medicine, 5(CSSI), 28.
  • Knisel, E., Opitz, S., Wossmann, M., & Keteihuf, K. (2009). Sport motivation and physical activity of students in three European schools. International Journal of Physical Education, 46(2), 40-53.
  • Kondric, M., Sindik, J., Furjan-Mandic, G., & Schiefler, B. (2013). Participation motivation and student’s physical activity among sport students in three countries. Journal of sports science & medicine, 12(1), 10.
  • Longhurst, K., & Spink, K.S. (1987). Participation motivation of Australian children involved in organized sport. Canadian journal of sport sciences, 12(1), 24-30.
  • Markland, D., & Hardy, L. (1993). The exercise motivations inventory: Preliminary development and validity of a measure of individuals’ reasons for participation in regular physical exercise. Personality and Individual Differences, 15(3), 289-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90219-S10.1016/0191-8869(93)90219-S
  • Morris, T., & Han, J. (1991). Motives for taking up tai-chi. A paper presented at the first Asian South Pacific Association of Sport Psychology International Congress, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Morris, T., Power, H., & Pappalardo, B. (1993, June). Motivation for participation in table tennis. Paper presented in the VIIIth World Congress in Sport Psychology, Lisbon, Portugal.
  • Prusak, K.A., & Darst, P.W. (2002). Effects of types of walking activities on actual choices by adolescent female physical education students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21(3), 230-241.
  • Sirard, J.R., Pfeiffer, K.A., & Pate, R.R. (2006). Motivational factors associated with sports program participation in middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(6), 696-703.
  • Soares, J., Antunnes, H., & van den Tillaar, R. (2013). A comparison between boys and girls about the motives for the participation in school sport. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3), 303.
  • Sutherland, G., & Morris, T. (1997). Gender and participation motivation in 13-to 15-year-old adolescents. In R Lidor & M Bar-Eli (Eds.), Proceedings of the IX World Congress of Sport Psychology (pp. 676-678). Netanya, Israel: ISSP.
  • Tsai, L.T., Lo, F.E., Yang, C.C., Keller, J.J., & Lyu, S.Y. (2015). Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(1), 829-840.
  • Vazou, S., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J.L. (2007). Peer – created motivational climate. In S. Jowett, & D. Lavallee (Eds.), Social psychology in sport (pp. 145-156). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  • Weiss, M.R., & Petlichkoff, L.M. (1989). Children’s motivation for participation in and withdrawal from sport: Identifying the missing links. Pediatric Exercise Science, 1(3), 195-211.
  • Zahariadis, P.N., & Biddle, S.J. (2000). Goal orientations and participation motives in physical education and sport: Their relationships in English schoolchildren. Athletic Insight: the Online Journal of Sports Psychology, 2(1), 1-12.

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