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2019 | 82 | 1 | 53-58

Article title

Why a Focus on Sporting Tests Would Reveal an Alternate Story and Raise Ethical Questions about Agon: A Commentary

Title variants

Languages of publication




agon   test   contest   play   virtue  









Physical description


  • Penn State University, Pennsylvania, USA


  • Carroll, D. (2000). An Interdisciplinary Study of Sport as a Symbolic Hunt. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.
  • Darwin, C. (1872/1936). The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life and the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. New York: The modern Library.
  • Feezell, R. (2013). Sport, Philosophy, and Good Lives. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Gottschall, J. (2015). Professor in the Cage: Why Men Fight and Why We Like to Watch. New York: Penguin Books.
  • Huizinga, J. ([1919]1999). The Waning of the Middle Ages. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
  • Huizinga, J. ([1938]1950). Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Kohn, A. (1992). No Contest: The Case Against Competition. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • Kretchmar, S. (1975). From test to contest: An analysis of two kinds of counterpoint in sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, II, 23-30.
  • Kretchmar, S. (2012). Competition, redemption, and hope. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, XXXIX, 1, 101-116.
  • Kretchmar, S. (2014). A phenomenology of competition. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 41, 21-37.
  • Loy, J.W. & Morford, R. (2019). The Agon Motif: Redux. A Study of the Contest Element in Sport. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, 82, 10-45.
  • MacIntyre, A. ([1981]1984). After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • McFee, G. (2004). Sport, Rules and Values: Philosophical Investigations into the Nature of Sport. London: Routledge.
  • Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: Why violence has declined. New York: Viking Press/The Penguin Group.
  • Schmitz, K. (1988). Sport and play: Suspension of the ordinary. In Philosophic Inquiry in Sport, W. Morgan & K. Meier eds. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, pp. 29-38.
  • Simon, R., Torres, C. & Hager P. (Eds.) (2015). Fair Play: The Ethics of Sport, 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Suits, B. (2014). The Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia, 3rd ed. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press.

Document Type

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