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2018 | 79 | 1 | 53-61

Article title

Challenges That Make/Break the Athlete’s Quest to Become an Entrepreneur: A Qualitative Study About Fans’ Perceptions

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  • Islamia University Bahawalpur,Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Islamia University Bahawalpur,Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Islamia University Bahawalpur,Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Zainab Degree Collage, Multan, Pakistan


  • Agyemang, K.J.A. & Williams, A.S. (2013). Creating Revenue via Organisational “Brandpression” Management (OBpM): A Marriage of Brand Management and Impression Management in Professional Sport. International Journal of Revenue Management 7(2), 171-81.
  • Albrecht, C-M., Backhaus, C., Gurzki, H., & Woisetschläger, D. (2013). Drivers of Brand Extension Success: WhatReally Matters for Luxury Brands. Psychology & Marketing 30(8), 647-659.
  • van Amsterdam, N., Knoppers, A., Claringbould, I., & Jongmans, M. (2012). A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words. Constructing (Non-) Athletic Bodies. Journal of Youth Studies 15(3), 293-309.
  • Apostolopoulou, A. (2002). Brand Extensions by U.S. Professional Sport Teams: Motivations and Keys to Success. Sports Marketing Quarterly 11(4), 205-14.
  • Arai, A., Ko, Y., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). Athlete Brand Image: Scale Development and Model Test. European Sport Management Quarterly 13(4), 383-403.
  • Archetti, E.P. (2001). The Spectacle of a Heroic Life: The Case of Diego Maradona. In D.L. Andrews & S.J. Jackson (Eds.), Sport Stars: The Cultural Politics of Sporting Celebrity (pp. 151-63). New York, NY: Routledge.
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  • Cortsen, K. (2013). Annika Sörenstam - A Hybrid Personal Sports Brand. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal 3(1), 37-62.
  • Crawford, G. (2004). Consuming Sport: Fans, Sport and Culture. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Fletcher, T. (2011). “Who Do ‘They’ Cheer For?”: Cricket, Diaspora, Hybridity and Divided Loyalties Amongst British Asians. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 47(5), 612-31.
  • Hasaan, A. (2016). Establishing Athlete Brand in Cricket: Fan’s Perception about Foreign Cricketers in Pakistan Super League (PSL). Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences 7(3), 23-39.
  • Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K.J.A. (2016). Athlete Brand Construction: A Perspective Based On Fans’ Perceptions. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física 22(3), 144-59.
  • Hunter, E. (2009). Celebrity Entrepreneurship and Celebrity Endorsement: Similarities, Differences and the Effect of Deeper Engagement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
  • Kumar, N. (2003). Kill a Brand, Keep a Customer. Harvard Business Review 81(12), 86-95.
  • Kunkel, T., Hill, B., & Funk, D.C. (2013). Brand Architecture, Drivers of Consumer Involvement, and Brand Loyalty With Professional Sport Leagues and Teams. Journal of Sport Management 27(3), 177-92.
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  • Lieb, K. (2013). Gender Branding and the Modern Music Industry: The Social Construction of Female Popular Music Stars. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Liu, M.T. & Brock, J.L. (2011). Selecting a Female Athlete Endorser in China: The Effect of Attractiveness, Match-Up, and Consumer Gender Difference. European Journal of Marketing 45(7/8), 1214-35.
  • Malcolm, D. (2001). “It’s Not Cricket”: Colonial Legacies and Contemporary Inequalities. The Journal of Historical Sociology 14(3), 253-75.
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  • Mujkic, D., Staškevičiūtė-Butienė, I., & Valantinė, I. (2016). Elite Athletes’ Motivation to Create Personal Brand. In The 9th Conference of the Baltic Sport Science Society, April 27-29, 2016 (p. 67-68). Kaunas, Lithuania.
  • Papp-Váry, Á. (2011). The Use of Sports Celebrities in Advertising: Best and Worst Practices. In Proceedings - 9th International Conference on Mangement, Enterprise and Benchmarking, November 17-18, 2011 (pp. 259-270). Budapest, Hungary.
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  • Pope, S. (2010). “Like Pulling Down Durham Cathedral and Building a Brothel”: Women as “New Consumer” Fans? International Review for the Sociology of Sport 46(4), 471-87. http://irs.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1012690210384652.10.1177/1012690210384652
  • Ratten, V. (2015). Athletes as Entrepreneurs: The Role of Social Capital and Leadership Ability. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 25(August), 442-55. http://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJESB.2015.070217.10.1504/IJESB.2015.070217
  • Rojek, C. (2001). Celebrity. London, UK: Reaktion Books.
  • Shakib, S. & Veliz, P. (2012). Race, Sport and Social Support: A Comparison Between African American and White Youths’ Perceptions of Social Support for Sport Participation. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 48(3), 295-317.
  • Stallen, M., Smidts, A., Rijpkema, M., Smit, G., Klucharev, V., & Fernández, G. (2010). Celebrities and Shoes on the Female Brain: The Neural Correlates of Product Evaluation in the Context of Fame. Journal of Economic Psychology 31(5), 802-811.
  • Stegemann, N. (2006). Unique Brand Extension: Challenges for Luxury Brands. Journal of Business and Economics Research 4(10), 57-68.
  • White, W.D. & Absher, K. (2013). Red Devils, Royals, and the River Thames. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal 3(4), 312-26.
  • Williams, A.S., Kim, D., Agyemang, K., & Martin, T.G. (2015). All Brands Are Not Created Equal: Understanding the Role of Athletes in Sport-Brand Architecture. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 7(3), 75-86.
  • Yu, C.C. (2005). Athlete Endorsement in the International Sports Industry: A Case Study of David Beckham. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship 6(3), 189-200.

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