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2017 | 74 | 1 | 43-53

Article title

Reconsidering Esport: Economics and Executive Ownership

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  • University of Turku, Finland


  • Adamus, T. (2012). Playing Computer Games as Electronic Sport: In Search of a Theoretical Framework for a New Research Field. In J. Fromme & A. Unger (Eds.), Computer Games and New Media Cultures: A Handbook of Digital Games Studies (pp. 477–490). New York, NY: Springer.
  • Al Dafai, S. (2016). Conventions within eSports: Exploring Similarities in Design. In Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG, 1–5 August 2016. Dundee, Scotland: Digital Games Research Association and Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games.
  • Boardgame Players Association (2017). World Boardgaming Championships History. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.boardgamers.org/historyindex.html
  • Bornemark, O. (2013). Success Factors for E-Sport Games. In S. Bensch & F. Drewes (Eds.), Umeå’s 16th Student Conference in Computing Science (pp. 1–12). Umeå: Umeå University.
  • Burk, D. (2013). Owning e-Sports: Proprietary Rights in Professional Computer Gaming. University of Pennsylvania Law Review Online, 161, 1535–1578.
  • Chee, F. (2012). Online Games as a Medium of Cultural Communication: An Ethnographic Study of Socio-Technical Transformation. Doctoral Dissertation, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
  • Choi, E. (2013). Investigating Factors Influencing Game Piracy in the Esports Settings of South Korea. Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
  • Connor, S. (2011). A Philosophy of Sport. London: Reaktion.
  • Dongsheng, Y., Xiaohang, Y., & Daofeng, K. (2011). The Present Situation and Development Trend of E-sports Games in China. In Future Computer Science and Education Proceedings (pp. 384–386), 20–21 August. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
  • Egliston, B. (2016) Big Playerbase, Big Data: On Data Analytics Methodologies and Their Applicability to Studying Multiplayer Games and Culture. First Monday, 21 (7). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v21i7.6718
  • FédérationInternationale de Football Association (FIFA) (2016). Organization homepage. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/who-we-are/index.html
  • Felczak, M. (2015). Narratives of Spectatorship: E-sports in Poland. In T. Bártek, J. Miškov& J. Švelch (Eds.), New Perspectives on Game Studies (pp. 109–124). Brno: Masaryk University.
  • Ferrari, S. (2013). eSport and the Human Body: Foundations for a Popular Aesthetics. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2013: DeFragging Game Studies, August 26–29. Atlanta, GA: DiGRA.
  • Groen, M. (2013). Exclusion and Inclusion of Women in E-sport and the Example of StarCraft: Wings of Liberty. In K. Mitgutsch, S. Huber, J. Wimmer, M. Wagner & H. Rosenstingl (Eds.), Context Matters (pp. 235–240). Vienna: New Academic Press.
  • Guorui, Z. (2012). Bibliometric Analysis on E-Sports in China. In D. Zeng (Ed.) Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (pp. 111–118). New York, NY: Springer.
  • Hamari, J., & Sjöblom, M. (2017). What is eSport and Why Do People Watch It? Internet Research, 27(2).
  • Hamilton, W.A., Kerne, A., & Robbins, T. (2012). High-Performance Pen + Touch Modality Interactions: A Real-Time Strategy Game eSports Context. In UIST’12 (pp. 309–318), 7-10 October. New York: ACM.
  • Hebbel-Seeger, A. (2012). The Relationship Between Real Sports and Digital Adaptation in E-sport Gaming. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 13(2), 132–143.
  • Hemphill, D. (2005). Cybersport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32(2), 195–207.
  • Hemphill, D. (2015). Cybersport. In C. Torres (Ed.), The Bloomsbury Companion to the Philosophy of Sport (pp. 346–348). Sydney, Australia: Bloomsbury.
  • Hewitt, E. (2014). Will ESports Ever Become Widely Accepted as Official Sports and How Will They Affect the Way We Entertain Ourselves If They Do? In J. Sharpe & R. Self (Eds.), Computers for Everyone (pp. 81–83). Derby: University of Derby.
  • Holden, J.T., Rodenberg, R.M., & Kaburakis, A. (2017). Esports Corruption: Gambling, Doping, and Global Governance. Forthcoming in the Maryland Journal of International Law.
  • Hollis, K. (2015). Time to Be Grown-Ups about Video Gaming: The Rising Esports Industry and the Need for Regulation. Arizona Law Review, 57, 823–847.
  • Holt, J. (2016). Virtual Domains for Sports and Games. Sport, Ethics, and Philosophy, 10(1), 5–13.
  • Huhh, J. (2008). Culture and Business of PC Bangs in Korea. Games and Culture, 3(1), 26–37.
  • Hutchins, B. (2008). Signs of Meta-Change in Second Modernity: The Growth of e-Sport and the World Cyber Games. New Media & Society, 10(6), 851–869.
  • Hyland, D. (1990). Philosophy of Sport. York: Paragon House.
  • Jin, D.Y. (2010). Korea’s Online Gaming Empire. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Jonasson, K. & Thiborg, J. (2010). Electronic Sport and Its Impact on Future Sport. Sport in Society, 13(2), 287–299.
  • Kari, T., & Karhulahti, V. (2016). Do E-Athletes Move? A Study on Training and Physical Exercise in Elite E-Sports. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 8(4), pp. 53–66.
  • Karhulahti, V. (2016). Prank, Troll, Gross and Gore: Performance Issues in Esport Live-Streaming. In Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG, 1–5 August 2016. Dundee, Scotland: Digital Games Research Association and Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games.
  • Kauweloa, S., & Winter, J. (2016). Collegiate E-sports as Work or Play. In Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG, 1–5 August 2016. Dundee, Scotland: Digital Games Research Association and Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games.
  • Korean Creative Content Agency. (2013). White Paper on Korean Games 2013. Seoul: Korea Creative Content Agency.
  • Kim, Y. (2013). A Study of Wellness Core Technology and E-Sports. In IT Convergence and Security Proceedings (pp. 1–3), 14–16 December. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
  • Kim, Y.J., Choi, M.J., & Cha, Y.S. (2012). A Study on the Impact of E-sports Participation by Students with Mental Retardation on Their Self-Confidence and Social Skills. In Ubiquitous and Future Networks Conference Proceedings (pp. 471–475), 1–6 July. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
  • Kushner, D. (2004). Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture. New York, NY: Random House.
  • Lee, A. (2005). E-Sports as a Growing Industry. Research Report. Seoul: Samsung Economic Research Institute.
  • Lee, D., & Schoenstedt, L.J. (2011). Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives. ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 6(2), 39–44.
  • Lee, S., An, J., & Lee, J. (2014). The Relationship between E-Sports Viewing Motives and Satisfaction: The Case of League of Legends. In J. Strouhal (Ed.), Proceedings of International Conference on Business, Management & Corporate Social Responsibility (pp. 33–36), 14–15 February. Batam, Indonesia: ICEHM.
  • Lefever, K. (2012). New Media and Sport. The Hague: TMC Asser Press.
  • Lehdonvirta, V., & Castronova, E. (2014). Virtual Economies: Design and Analysis. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Ma, H., Wu, Y., & Wu, X. (2013). Research on Essential Difference of E-Sport and Online Game. In D. Wenjiang (Ed.), Informatics and Management Science V (pp. 615–621). New York, NY: Springer.
  • Maric, J. (2011). Electronic Sport: How Pro-Gaming Negotiates Territorial Belonging and Gender. Platform: Journal of Media and Communication, ECREA Special Issue, 6–23.
  • Martončik, M. (2015). E-Sports: Playing Just for Fun or Playing to Satisfy Life Goals? Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 208–211.
  • Mather, V., & Carey, C. (2015, November 13). Russia Suspended from World Track and Field. The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/14/sports/russia-suspended-by-track-and-fields-governing-body.html
  • McTee, M. (2014). E-Sports: More Than Just a Fad. 10 Oklahoma Journal of Law & Technology, 70, pp. 1–27.
  • Mykles, C. (2016a). Riot’s Renegades Investigation. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXIcwyTutno
  • Mykles, C. (2016b). Unnamed document. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from https://www.scribd.com/document/319603736/Riot-Renegades-Investigation
  • Nagel, M. & Sugishita, K. (2016). Esport: The Fastest Growing Segment of the “Sport” Industry. Sport & Entertainment Review, 2(2), pp. 51–60.
  • Parshakov, P., & Zavertiaeva, M.A. (2015). Success in eSports: Does Country Matter? SSRN. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2662343
  • Rambusch, J., Jakobsson, P., & Pargman, D. (2007). Exploring E-sports: A Case Study of Gameplay in Counter-Strike. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 (pp. 157–164), September 24–28. Tokyo, Japan: DiGRA.
  • Riot Games. (2015). Competitive Ruling: Chris Badawi. Riot Games statement. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://2015.na.lolesports.com/articles/competitive-ruling-chris-badawi
  • Riot Games. (2016a). Competitive Ruling: Renegades and TDK. Riot Games statement. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.lolesports.com/en_US/articles/competitive-ruling-renegades-and-tdk
  • Riot Games. (2016b). The Indefinite Banning of Tyler1. Riot Games statement. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://boards.na.leagueoflegends.com/en/c/player-behavior-moderation/8a75KeUR-the-indefinite-banning-of-tyler1
  • Rothman, J. (2013). Response: E-Sports as a Prism for the Role of Evolving Technology in Intellectual Property. University of Pennsylvania Law Review Online, 161, 317–329.
  • Ruiz, R. (2016, June 17). Russia’s Track and Field Team Barred from Rio Olympics. The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/18/sports/olympics/russia-barred-rio-summer-olympics-doping.html?_r=0
  • Ryzhov, I., Tariq, A., & Powell, W. (2011). May the Best Man Win: Simulation Optimization for Match-Making in E-sports. In S. Jain, R. Creasey, J. Himmelspach, K.P. White & M. Fu (Eds.), Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 4239–4250), 11–14 December. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.
  • Seo, Y. (2013). Electronic sports: A New Marketing Landscape of the Experience Economy. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(13–14), 1542–1560.
  • Seo, Y. (2016). Professionalized Consumption and Identity Transformations in the Field of eSports. Journal of Business Research, 69(1), 264–272.
  • Seo, Y., & Jung, S. (2014). Beyond Solitary Play in Computer Games: The Social Practices of eSports. Journal of Consumer Culture.
  • Sport Accord. (2016). Organization homepage. Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.sportaccord.com/about/membership/definition-of-sport.php
  • Stein, V., & Scholz, T. (2014). The Intercultural Challenge of Building the European eSports League for Video Gaming. In C. Barmeyer & P. Franklin (Eds.), Case Studies in Intercultural Management: Achieving Synergy from Diversity (pp. 1–13). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Szablewicz, M. (2011). From Addicts to Athletes: Participation in the Discursive Construction of Digital Games in Urban China. In S. Fragoso (Ed.), Selected Papers of Internet Research 12.0 (pp. 1–21). Seattle, WA: Association of Internet Researchers.
  • Szablewicz, M. (2016). A Realm of Mere Representation? “Live” E-Sports Spectacles and the Crafting of China’s Digital Gaming Image. Games and Culture, 11(3), 256–274.
  • Taylor, N. (2009). Cheerleaders, Booth Babes, Halo Hoes: Pro-Gaming, Gender and Jobs for the Boys. Digital Creativity, 20(4), 239–252.
  • Taylor, N. (2011). Play Globally, Act Locally: The Standardization of Pro Halo 3 Gaming. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 3(1), 228–242.
  • Taylor, N. (2012). “A Silent Team is a Dead Team”: Communicative Norms in Team-Based Halo 3 Play. In G. Voorhees (Ed.), Guns, Grenades and Grunts: First Person Shooter Games (pp. 251–275). New York, NY: Continuum.
  • Taylor, N. (2015). Professional Gaming. In R. Mansell & P. Ang (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society (pp. 1–4). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Taylor, T.L. (2012). Raising the Stakes: E-Sports and the Professionalization of Computer Gaming. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Trammell, A. (2010). Magic: The Gathering in Material and Virtual Space: An Ethnographic Approach Toward Understanding Players Who Dislike Online Play. In Meaningful Play 2010 proceedings (pp. 1–21). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://meaningfulplay.msu.edu/proceedings2010/mp2010_paper_42.pdf
  • Van Hilvoorde, I. (2016). Sport and Play in a Digital World. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 1–4.
  • Van Hilvoorde, I., & Pot, N. (2016). Embodiment and Fundamental Motor Skills in eSports. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 10(1), 14–27.
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  • Wagner, M. (2007). Competing in MetagameGamespace: eSport as the First Professionalized Computer Metagames. In F. von Borries, S.P. Walz, M. Bèottger, D. Davidson, H. Kelley & J. Kücklich (Eds.), Space Time Play (pp. 182–185). New York, NY: Springer.
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  • Wimmer, J. (2012). Digital Game Culture(s) as Prototype(s) of Mediatization and Commercialization of Society. In J. Fromme & A. Unger (Eds.), Computer Games and New Media Cultures: A Handbook of Digital Game Studies (pp. 525–540). New York, NY: Springer.
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  • Witkowski, E. (2012b). Inside the Huddle: The Phenomenology and Sociology of Team Play in Networked Computer Games. Doctoral Dissertation, IT University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
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