Since medieval times mathematics was being developed mainly in Central and Western Europe but in the 19th century it greatly expanded both to the United States and to some countries of Central-Eastern Europe. This expansion, accompanied by the rapid growth of mathematics as a whole, has recently become an object of interest and investigation. The interest, however, reflects the Western viewpoint, cf. , with the bibliography covering Germany, Spain, Italy, France, Moscow. The aim of this paper is to outline the history of emerging national mathematical research communities in Russia, Poland, Bohemia, Lithuania and some other countries of Central-Eastern Europe.