In the Czech lands, there is a long and fruitful tradition of research and study of the history of mathematics which began in the second half of the 19th century. The most important papers and books were written by J. Smolík, F.J. Studnička, J. Úlehla, K. Rychlík and Q. Vetter. But from the 1950s to the 1980s only a few professionals from the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, along with a few university professors, devoted their attention to the history of mathematics. For example, we can mention two historians of mathematics, Jaroslav Folta and Luboš Nový, whose papers and activities became well-known in Europe. However, on account of various professional and political circumstances, no new generation of historians of mathematics was raised. The first step to the new development of research in the history of mathematics was made in the 1980s, when the special commission on history of mathematics was created at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University in Prague, thanks to activities of Jindřich Bečvář, Ivan Netuka and Jiří Veselý.