The paper refers to the text published in the materials from the 1st Congress of Polish Preservation Officers, the resolution accepted then, and own research and issues concerning monument protection observed, within the last decade. The paper addresses the issue of modernizing historical objects e.g.: thermal modernization; ‘commercial modernization’; issues of protecting modernist monuments from the 1960s and 1970s; the phenomenon of recorded division of immovable monuments; the issue of modernizing historical hospitals, schools, and public utility objects. As far as the protection of urban design monuments is concerned, it involves e.g. preservation of the cultural landscape of our towns; protecting the panorama of historical towns; communications problems and the “city gates” setting.