In this paper, the problem of corrosion in structural elements made of materials which are considered as corrosion resistant is discussed. The paper presents an analysis of the reasons for corrosion damage to structural elements used in civil engineering. The main aim of the work was to identify the potential causes of corrosion and to formulate recommendations that allow the selection of the best structural material properties in order to counteract the negative impact of the corrosive environment. For this purpose, stainless steel ventilation duct corrosion in an indoor swimming pool hall is analysed. An assessment of the nature of the reasons for the potential damage of ventilation ducts is performed based on macroscopic inspection. This allowed the determination of the type and nature of the existing corrosion of stainless steel. The analysis of the results of the chemical composition of the material provided by the gravimetric method and the results of the corrosion products report provided further information. Based on its conclusions, recommendations in order to avoid this type of corrosion in aggressive indoor swimming pool environments are formulated. Next, the problem of corrosion of aluminium in contact with steel in new aluminium and concrete composite structures which consist of an aluminium beam, steel trapezoidal sheeting and a concrete slab is analysed. Moreover, recommendations in order to avoid this type of corrosion are formulated. The presented analyses can be a valuable source of information on corrosion and protection methods in specific cases of building structures.