Cellars of the main building of the University of Agriculture in Krakow are used as storage areas, laboratories and as classrooms. This article presents the results of many years of temperature measurements in one cellar room; internal and external air temperature as well as temperatures of the walls, the floor and adjacent ground were recorded. In the winter season, the examined room was intermittently heated. Using measured boundary conditions, transient, three-dimensional heat flow in the basement foundation interface was calculated. WUFI®Plus software was used for calculation. By means of statistical analysis, the calculated temperature distribution in assemblies and the ground was then compared with the measurement results. The analysis allowed for the determination of the accuracy of theoretical calculations of thermal conditions in the environment of the periodically heated cellar room.