Water Jackets as Efficient Heat Shields in High Temperature Difference Cases – CFD Modelling of Convective and Radiative Heat Transfer in Vacuum Systems
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Many experimental high-energy installations, e.g. ITER (Cadarache), CERN (Geneva), SOLARIS (Krakow), require an ultra-high quality of vacuum. To meet these requirements, a vacuum void and its adjacent diagnostic systems are exposed to elevated temperatures (baking) after assembly to outgas all volatile surface contaminants. The baking temperature peaks as high as 250°C for up to 24 hours.
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