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A classic example of the application of electron-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is the observation of the microstructure of solid samples using scanning electron microscope (SEM). This provides the possibility of taking measurements of chemical composition in very small areas. Measurements can be performed on any bulk sample through adjusting the X-ray excitation parameters to the elements of its expected composition. Examples of the applications of the EDS technique in the context of environmental engineering have been presented.
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