Chemical ideas and the development of chemical and petroleum industry on the Polish territory since 1850 to 1920
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The information about: 1) the liquefaction of oxygen and nitrogen in 1883 in Kraków, 2) the formulation in Lwow of the hypothesis of vegetal origin of crude oil, 3) the discovery of chromatography in 1903 in Warsaw, is given. The situation of chemical industry in the three parts of Poland partitioned among Russia, Germany and Austria is reported. A special attention is paid to the activity of Ignacy Łukasiewicz, who received for the first time in the world the kerosene from the crude oil, constructed and lighted in Lwow pharmacy in March 1853 the kerosene lamp. In 1854 he excavated petroleum shaft in Bóbrka and in 1856 he built a petroleum refinery in Ulaszowice near Jasło, getting ahead of USA, where the first petroleum refinery at Oil Creek was built five years later, in 1861.
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