In the 19th century, in Poland divided among Russia, Austria and Prussia, the occupants hindered access to education for Poles. Fighting the restrictions, the Poles organized scientific institutions, published texts enabling self-study and founded high and academic private schools. In the Polish Kingdom in 19th century these schools were mostly clandestine, becoming legal at the beginning of 20th century. In Galicia, polonized high schools and universities in Lwów and Kraków educated students, including women, from all occupied territories. Many studied abroad. People educated in the second half of 19th century rebuilt the system of higher education in Poland Reborn.