On the Enigmatic Hook of the Metaradiophryids (Alveolata, Ciliophora)
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The astomatous metaradiophryids are ciliates which live endosymbiotically in earthworms (Annelida, Lumbricidae). Their prominent hook apparatus is demonstrated in detail in light micrographs of living organisms as well as in scanning electron micrographs of Parducz-fixed cells. Since it was first observed, this structure has been interpreted as a ‘holdfast’ organelle preventing ciliates from being expelled prematurely from the intestine of the worm along with its excrements. No active movement of the hook has been reported in earlier papers or in our recent studies. Nevertheless, a detailed description of different parts of the hook apparatus exists in older literature, including a hypothesis on how these elements interact with each other to function as a holdfast device – without any experimental evidence. The suspected mode of function of this structure is questioned and critically discussed.
20 - 09 - 2016
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