Eukaryotic Microbial Communities Associated with Rock-dwelling Foliose Lichens: A Functional Morphological and Microecological Analysis
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Lichens are widely recognized as important examples of a fungal-algal or fungal-cyanophyte symbiosis; and in some cases they are a major food source for some animal grazers such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus), especially in the Arctic during winter. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of their co-associated bacterial and protistan communities. This is one of the first reports of an analysis of microbial communities associated with rock-dwelling foliose lichens (Flavoparmelia sp.), including a more detailed analysis of the microbial communities associated with segments of the shield-like, radially arranged lobes. Samples were taken from lichens on granite boulders beneath an oak and maple tree stand on the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Campus, Palisades, N.Y. The bacteria and protist members of the lichen associated microbial communities are comparable to recently reported associations for foliose lichens growing on tree bark at the same locale, including the presence of large myxomycete plasmodial amebas, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and naked and testate amebas. To obtain evidence of possible differences in the microecology of different portions of each radial lobe, three segments of the radial lobe in the shield-like lichen were sampled: 1) inner, more mature, central segment; 2) middle section linking the central and peripheral segments; and 3) outer, peripheral, usually broader, less closely attached segment. The mean densities (number/g) and biomasses (µg/g) of bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates were highest in the older central segment and lowest in the peripheral segment of the radial lobes, especially when expressed on moist weight basis. Large myxomycete plasmodial amebas were typically located in the outermost segment of the radial lobe. The proportion of vannellid amebas (Vannella spp. and Cochliopodium spp.) were significantly more abundant in the samples of the inner lobes compared to non-vannellid amebas that were more prevalent in the outer lobes. The outer segment of the thallus lobe was typically more spongiose and absorbed more water per unit weight (based on a wet/dry-weight ratio) than the innermost segment. In general, patterns of densities and taxonomic composition of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes intergraded from the inner most segment to the outer part of each lobe – indicating a possible microecological gradient, coincident with the age-related and morphological radial gradations of the lobe. Overall, the evidence shows that the radial variation in the morphology and age-related variables of the three lobe segments may affect the microenvironment of the lobe segments and hence influence the organization of the microbial communities within each segment.
02 - 06 - 2016
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