Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2018 | 51 | 1 |
Article title

The relations between the rainfall erosivity index AI and the hydraulics of overland flow and sediment concentration in sandy soils

Title variants
Languages of publication
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of rainfall erosivity index AI on the hydraulics of overland flow parameters such as the flow velocity, the flow depth, the flow regime, overland flow power and on soil surface characteristics, such as surface roughness and sediment concentration. The erosivity index AI represents six rainfall intensities, 31.40 mm·h-1; 37.82 mm·h-1; 69.49 mm·h-1; 81.85 mm·h-1; 90.39 mm·h-1 and 101.94 mm·h-1 generated by a rainfall simulator. To simulate the soil plot, a soil tray was filled with remolded agricultural sandy soil. The results found have shown that the AI represents better the rainfall than rainfall intensity and related to drop diameter with a power function. Overland flow never exceeded the laminar and subcritical regime; the Reynolds number reacted differently with AI and rainfall intensity, whereas the Froude number has similar reaction with both parameters. Re, Fr and n follow with AI logarithmic, linear and power functions respectively. Finally, AI is a good predictor of soil erosion.
Physical description
01 - 04 - 2018
  • [1] Atlas, D., 1953. Optical extinction by rainfall. Journal of Meteorology, 10: 486–488.
  • [2] Bagnold, R.A., 1977. Bed load transport by natural rivers. Water Resources Research Journal, 13: 303–312.
  • [3] Bols, P., 1979. Contribution to the study of surface runoff and erosion on Java. Ph.D. study. Faculty of Agriculture. State University of Ghent, Belgium.
  • [4] Brandt, C.J., 1988. The transformation of rainfall energy by a tropical rain forest canopy in relation to soil erosion. Journal of Biogeography, 15: 41–48.
  • [5] Bryan, R.B., 1979. The inflence of slope angle on soil entrainment by sheetwash and rainsplash. Earth Surface Processes, 4: 43–58.
  • [6] Collinet, J., Valentin, C., 1984. Evaluation of factors inflencing water erosion in West Africa using rainfall simulation. Challenges in African Hydrology and Water Resources. IAHS Publ.144.
  • [7] El Kateb, H., Zhang, H., Zhang, P., Mosandl, R., 2013. Soil erosion and surface runoff on different vegetation covers and slope gradients: A fild experiment in Southern Shaanxi Province, China. Catena 105: 1–10.
  • [8] Ellison, W.D., 1944. Studies of raindrop erosion. Agricultural Engineering, 25: 131–136, 181–182.
  • [9] Emmett, W.W., 1970. The hydraulics of overland flw on hillslopes. Geological Survey Professional Paper 662.
  • [10] Ferro, V., Porto P., Tusa, G., 1998. Testing a distributed approach for modeling sediment delivery. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 43: 425–442.
  • [11] Fox, D.M., Bryan, R.B., 1999. The relationship of soil loss by interrill erosion to slope gradient. Catena, 38: 211–222.
  • [12] Gabet, E.J., Dunne, D., 2003. Sediment detachment by rain power. Water Resources Research, 39: 1–12.
  • [13] Giménez, R., Govers, G., 2001. Interaction between bed roughness and flw hydraulics in eroding rills. Water Resources Research, 37: 791–799.
  • [14] Guo, M., Jian, J., Zhao, Z., Jiao, J., 2013a. Measurement on physical parameters of raindrop energy. Springer plus, 2 (Suppl. 1): S16.
  • [15] Guo, T., Wang, Q., Li, D., Zhuang, J., Wu, L., 2013b. Flow hydraulic characteristic effect on sediment and solute transport on slope erosion. Catena, 107: 145–153.
  • [16] Guy, B.J., Dickinson, W.T., Rudra, R.P., 1990. Hydraulics of sediment laden sheet flw and the inflence of simulated rainfall. Earth surface Processes and Landforms, 15: 101–118.
  • [17] Hairsine, P.B., Rose, C.W., 1992. Modeling water erosion due to overland flw using physical principales (Sheet Flow). Water Resources Research, 28: 273–243.
  • [18] Hudson, N.W., 1995. Soil Conservation (3 rd ed.), B.T. Batsford, London, p. 391.
  • [19] Hui-Ming, S., Chih, T.Y., 2009. Estimating overland flw erosion capacity using unit stream power. International Journal of Sediment Research, 24: 46–62.
  • [20] Julien, P.Y., Simons, D.B., 1985. Sediment transport capacity of overland flw. Transactions of ASAE, 28: 755–762.
  • [21] Kinnell, P., 1981. Rainfall intensity kinetic-energy relationships for soil loss prediction. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 45 (1): 153–155.
  • [22] Lal, R., 1977. Analysis of factors affecting rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility. Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics. John Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp. 49– 56.
  • [23] Laws, J.O., Parsons, D.A., 1943. The relationship of raindrop size to intensity. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 24: 452–460.
  • [24] Laws, J.O., 1941. Measurements of the fall velocities of waterdrops and raindrops. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 22: 709–721.
  • [25] Li, G., Abrahams, Athol, D., 1996. Correction factors in the determination of mean velocity of overland flw. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 21: 509–515.
  • [26] Mantovani, E.C., Villalobos, F.J., Organ, F., Fereres, E., 1995. Modelling the effects of sprinkler irrigation uniformity on crop yield. Agricultural Water Management, 27: 243–257.
  • [27] Marshall, J.S., Palmer, W.M., 1948. The distribution of raindrops with size. Journal of Meteorology. 5: 165–166.
  • [28] Meyer, L.D., 1958. An investigation of methods for simulating rainfall on standard run-off plots and a study of the drop size, velocity, and kinetic energy of selected spray nozzle. Purdue University. Special Report, 81, p.42.
  • [29] Mualem, Y., Assouline, S., 1986. Mathematical model for rain drop distribution and rainfall kinetic energy. Transactions of ASAE, 29(2): 494–500.
  • [30] Nearing, M.A., Norton, L.D., Bulkakov, D.A., Larionov, G.A., West L.T., Dontsova, K.M., 1997. Hydraulics and erosion in eroding rill. Water Resources Research, 33: 865–876.
  • [31] Palmer, R.S., 1965. Waterdrop impact forces. Transactions of ASAE, 8(l): 69–72.
  • [32] Pan, C., Shangguan, Z., 2006. Runoff hydraulic characteristics and sediment generation in sloped grassplots under simulated rainfall conditions. Journal of Hydrology, 331: 178–185.
  • [33] Pauwelyn, P.L.L., Lenvain, G.J.S., Sakala, W.K., 1988. Iso-erodent map of Zambia. Part I: the calculation of erosivity indices from a rainfall data bank. Soil technology, 1: 235–250.
  • [34] Polyakov, V. O., Nearing, M. A., 2003. Sediment transport in rill flw under deposition and detachment conditions, Catena, 51: 33–43.
  • [35] Sukhanovskii, Yu., P., 2007. Modifiation of a rainfall simulation procedure at runoff plots for soil erosion investigation. Eurasian Soil Science, 2: 195–202.
  • [36] Sukhanovskii, Yu., P., Khan, K., Yu., 1983. Erosion characterization of rain. Pochvovedenie, 9: 123–125.
  • [37] Walker, P.H., Kinnell, P., Green, P., 1978. Transport of a noncohesive sandy mixture in rainfall and runoff experiments. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42: 793–801.
  • [38] Wischmeier, W.H., 1959. A Rainfall erosion index for a universal soil loss equation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 23: 246–249.
  • [39] Wischmeier, W.H., Smith, D.D., 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses. Agricultural Handbook No.537. Washington, D C.
  • [40] Zachar, D., 1982. Soil Erosion. Developments in soil science 10. Forest Research Institute, Zvolen, Czechoslovakia, p. 548.
  • [41] Zhang, G.H., Liu, B.Y., Liu, G.B., He, X.W., Nearing, M.A., 2003. Detachment of undisturbed soil by shallow flw. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67: 713–719.
  • [42] Zhao, Q., Li, D., Zhuo, M., Guo, T., Liao, Y., Xie, Z., 2015. Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on erosion characteristics of the red soil slope. Stochastic Environmental Research Risk Assessment, 29: 609–621.
  • [43] Zhu, J.C., Gantzer, C.J., Anderson, S.H., Peyton, R.L., Alberts, E.E., 1995. Simulated small channel bed scour and head cut erosion rates compared. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59: 211–218.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.