Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2018 | 51 | 1 |

Article title

The Influence of Selected Abiotic Factors on the Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in Soil


Title variants

Languages of publication



Original research confirms a significant impact of abiotic factors, such as soil type and physicochemical properties, on the biological activity and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes from the Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae families. Nematodes were found to prefer sandy loam soils; however, the highest species diversity was found in sandy soils. Some species of nematodes were associated with a specific type of soil. For example, Steinernema silvaticum and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were found only in sands, and H. megidis predominantly in clay. Nematodes were found in soils of varying pH levels, although individual species preferred a certain degree of acidity. S. bicornutum and H. megidis were found only in alkaline soils, while others, such as S. silvaticum, only in acidic environments (pH<4.5).






Physical description


19 - 02 - 2018



  • [1] Adams, B.J., Fodor, A., Koppenhöfer, H..S, Stackebrandt, E., Stock, S.P., Klein, M.G., 2006. Biodiversity and systematics of nematode-bacterium entomopathogens. Biological Control: Theory and Applications in Pest Management 37(1): 32–49, doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.11.008
  • [2] Alekseev, E., Glazer, I. & Samish, M., 2006. Effect of soil texture and moisture on the activity of entomopathogenic nematodes against female Boophilus annulatus Ticks. Biocontrol, 51: 507–518, doi:10.1007/s10526-005-2935-9
  • [3] Bedding R.A., Akhurst R., 1975. A simple technique for the detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica , 21: 109–110.
  • [4] Brown, I.M., Gaugler, R., 1997. Temperature and humidity influence emergence and survival of entomopathogenic nematodes. Nematologica, 43: 363–375.
  • [5] Gaugler R., Kaya H.K., 1990. Entomopathogenic nematodes in biological control. Boca Raton, FL, USA, CRC Press, 54, pp. 110.
  • [6] Georgis, R., Koppenhöfer, A.M., Lacey, L.A., Bélair, G., Duncan, L.W., Grewal, P.S., Samish, M., Tan, L., Torr, P., van Tol, R.W.H.M, 2006. Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control. Biological Control, 38: 103–123.
  • [7] Glazer, I., 2002. Survival biology. In: Entomopathogenic nematology, Randy R. (Ed.). CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, pp: 196–181.
  • [8] Grewal P.S., Ehlers R-U., Shapiro-Ilan D.I., 2005. Nematodes as biological control agents. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, pp. 528.
  • [9] Grewal, P.S., 2012. Entomopathogenic nematodes as tools in integrated pest management. In: D.P Arbol, U. Shankar (eds.), Integrated Pest Management: Principles and Practice, Cabi Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 162–236.
  • [10] Griffin C.T, Joyce S.A., Dix I., Burnell A.M., Downes M.J., 1994. Characterization of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) from Ireland and Britain by molecular and cross-breeding techniques, and the occurrence of the genus in these islands. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 17: 245–253.
  • [11] Hara A., R. Gaugler, H. Kaya, L. LeBeck., 1991. Natural populations of entomopathogenic nematodes from the Hawaiian Islands. Environmental Entomology, 20: 211–216.
  • [12] Hass B., Downes M.J., Griffin C.T., 2002. Persistence of four Heterorhabditis spp. isolates in soil: role of lipid reserves. Journal of Nematology, 34: 151–158.
  • [13] Hominik W.M. 2002. Biogeography. In: Gaugler R. (red.) Entomopathogenic Nematology, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 115–143.
  • [14] Hominik, W.M., Briscoe, B.R., 1990. Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in British soil. Parasitology, 100: 295–302.
  • [15] Hominik, W.M., Briscoe, B.R., F.G. del Pino, Heng, J., Hunt, D.J., Kozodoy, E., Mráček Z., Nguyen, K.B., Reid, A.P., Spiridonov, S., Stock, P., Sturhan, D., Waturu, C., Yoshida, M., 1997. Biosystematics of entomopathogenic nematodes: current status, protocols and definitions. Journal of Helminthology, 71: 271–298.
  • [16] Kary N. E., Niknam Gh., Griffin C. T., Mohammadi S. A, Mohammadi M. 2009. A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes of the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae (Nematoda: Rhabditida) in the North-West of Iran. Nematology, 11(1): 107–116.
  • [17] Kaya H. K., 1990. Soil Ecology. In: Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control (Eds. Gaugler R., Kaya K.H), Boca Raton: CRC Press, 93–115.
  • [18] Kondo E., Ishibashi N., 1985. Effects of soil moisture on the survival and infectivity of the entomogenous nematode, Steinernema feltiae (DD-136). Proc. Associat. for Plant Protect. Kyushu, 31: 186–190.
  • [19] Koppenhöfer A.M., Kaya H.K, Taormino S.P., 1995. Infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) at different soil depths and moistures. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 65: 193–199.
  • [20] Koppenhöfer A. M., Baur M. E., Stock S. P., Yul H., Chinnasri B., Kaya H. K., 1997. Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes within host cadavers in dry soil. Applied Soil Ecology, 6: 231–240.
  • [21] Koppenhöfer AM, Fuzy EM., 2006. Effect of soil type on infectivity and persistence of the entomopathogenic nematodesSteinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 92: 11–22.
  • [22] Koppenhöfer A.M., Fuzy E.M., 2008. Attraction of four entomopathogenic nematode species to four white grub species. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 99: 227–234.
  • [23] Kung S.P., Gaugler R., Kaya H.K. 1990. Soil type and entomopathogenic nematode persistence. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 55(3): 410–406.
  • [24] Kung S.P., Gaugler R., Kaya H., 1991. Effects of soil temperature, moisture and relative humidity on entomopathogenic nematode persistence. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 57: 242–249.
  • [25] Millar, L.C.,Barbercheck, M.E., 2002. Effects of tillage practices on entomopathogenic nematodes in a corn agroecosystem. Biological Control, 25: 1–11.
  • [26] Mocek A., Drzymała S., Maszner P., 1997. Geneza, analiza i klasyfikacja gleb. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej, Poznań, pp. 416.
  • [27] Mráček Z., 1980. The use of Galleria traps for obtaining nematode parasites of insects in Czechoslovakia (Lepidoptera: Nematoda, Steinernematidae). Acta Entom. Bohem., 77: 378–382.
  • [28] Mráček Z., Bečvář S., Kindlmann P., 1999. Survey of entomopathogenic nematodes from the families (Nematoda: Rhabditida) in the Czech Republic. Folia Parasitologica, 46: 145–148.
  • [29] Mráček Z., Bečvář S., 2000. Insect aggregations and entomopathogenic nematode occurrence. Nematology, 2 (3): 297–301.
  • [30] Mráček Z., Bečvář S., Kindlmann P., Jersáková J., 2005. Habitat preference for entomopathogenic nematodes, thier insect hosts and new faunistic records for the Czech Republic. Biological Control, 34: 27–37.
  • [31] Nguyen K.B., 2007. Methodology, morphology and identification. In: Nguyen K.B., Hunt D.J. (Eds). Entomopathogenic nematode: Systematics, Phylogeny and Bactrial symbionts. Nematology Monographs and Perspectives, Brill Leiden-Boston, 5: 59–119.
  • [32] Nyasani J.O., Kimenju J.W., Olubayo F.M., Shibairo S.I. Mutua G.K., 2008. Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes and their potential in the management of diamondback moth in Kale. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 7: 314–318.
  • [33] Peters, A., 1996. The natural host range of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp. and their impact of insect populations. biocontrol science and technology, 6: 389–402, doi: 10.1080/09583159631361
  • [34] PN 04032: 1998. Soils and mineral deposits – Sampling and determination of granulometric composition.
  • [35] Poinar G.O., Jr., 1990. Taxonomy and Biology of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. In: R. Gaugler, H.K. Kaya (eds.) Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 23–61.
  • [36] Půža,V., Mráček Z., 2005. Seasonal dynamics of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis as a response to abiotic factors and abundance of insect hosts. J Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 89: 116–122.
  • [37] Půža V., Mràček Z., 2007. Natural population dynamics of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema affine (Steinernematidae) under dry conditions: Possible nematode persistence within host cadavers? Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 96: 89–92.
  • [38] Qui L., Bedding R,. 2000a. Energy metabolism and its relation to survival and infectivity of infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae under aerobic conditions. Nematology, 2: 551–559.
  • [39] Qui L., Bedding R.A., 2000b. Energy metabolism and survival of the infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae under oxygen-deficient conditions. J. Nematol., 32: 271–280.
  • [40] Raheel M., Javed N., Khan S. A., Achmed S., 2015. Impact of soil texture on the infectivity of different species of entomopathogenic nematodes against greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.). Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 27 (02):189–192.
  • [41] Shapiro, D.I., McCoy, C.W., Fares, A., Obreza, T., Dou, H., 2000. effects of soil type on virulence and persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes in relation to control ofdiaprepes abbreviatus. environmental entomology, 29: 1083–1087.
  • [42] Shapiro-Ilan D.I., Gaugler R., Tedders W.L., Brown I., Lewis E.E., 2002. Optimization of inoculation for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 34:343–350.
  • [43] Siegel J., Lacey L.A., Higbee B.S., Noble P., Fritts R. Jr., 2006. Effect of application rates and abiotic factors onSteinernema carpocapsae for control of overwintering navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Amyelois transitella) in fallen pistachios.Biological Control, 36: 324–330.
  • [44] Stock S. P., Pryor B. M., Kaya H. K., 1999. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in natural habitats in California, USA. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8: 535–549.
  • [45] Thurston, G.S., Ni., Y., Kaya, H.K., 1994. Influence of salinity on survival and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes. journal of nematology, 26: 345–351.
  • [46] Tumialis D. Pezowicz E., Skrzecz I., Mazurkiewicz A., Maszewska J., Jarmu Pietraszczyk J., Kucharska K.,, 2016. Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Polish soils. Ciência Rural, 46: 1126–1129.
  • [47] White, G.F., 1929. A method for obtaining infective nematode larvae from cultures. Science, 66: 302–303, doi: 10.1126/science.66.1709.302-a.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.