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2019 | 74 |
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Możliwości mapowania partycypacyjnego w zakresie postrzeganych granic społeczności w centralnych Andach Ekwadorskich

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This paper presents how participatory mapping can contribute to the understanding of the local meanings of community limits and perceptions about tenure security in agro-pastoral communities of the Andes, which participate in the payments for environmental services (PES) program. Literature about PES sustains that increasing tenure security might be an additional element of participating in such programs. We focused on the “Socio Páramo” conservation program to analyze how the inclusion of land in this program has influenced perception on limits and tenure security for the local communities. With two case studies in the high grasslands (páramo) of Ecuador, we first used sketch maps to elicit how the area inscribed in the PES program has modified the spatial structures of the community territory and what type of limits are found in this territory. Then, we conducted narrative walking to track GPS points with descriptions of land uses, perceived communitarian limits and narratives about meaning or concerns with regard to limits for the community and the relation between the legalized area inscribed in the PES program and tenure security. Maps were produced through GIS support and narratives were analyzed through thematic coding. The study reveals that: a) legal tenure obtained in frame of PES implementation is perceived as a pre-condition to participate in the program and has influenced positively or negatively land tenure security for the entire community; b) knowledge about community limits of páramo is the main concern for elder members, who regard this knowledge as the key element to maintain community cohesion. We conclude that participatory mapping is a powerful tool to elucidate concerns about limits, rules and control over land use and persistence of communitarian life, elements that should be considered when implementing PES.
W artykule przedstawiono, w jaki sposób mapowanie partycypacyjne może przyczynić się do zrozumienia lokalnych znaczeń w zakresie ograniczeń społeczności i postrzegania bezpieczeństwa posiadania wśród rolno-pasterskich społeczności Andów, które uczestniczą w programie płatności z tytułu świadczeń na rzecz ekosystemu (PES). Literatura przedmiotu wskazuje, że zwiększenie bezpieczeństwa posiadania może być dodatkowym elementem uczestnictwa w takich programach. Autorzy skupili się na programie ochrony „Socio Páramo” w celu przeanalizowania, w jaki sposób włączenie gruntów do tego programu wpłynęło na kwestię postrzegania limitów oraz bezpieczeństwa wśród lokalnych społeczności. Zostały zrealizowane dwa studia przypadków na wysoko położonych pastwiskach (páramo) w Ekwadorze. Najpierw użyto map szkicowych, aby dowiedzieć się, w jaki sposób obszar wpisany w program zmodyfikował struktury przestrzenne terytorium społeczności i jaki typ ograniczeń znajduje się w danej strukturze. Następnie przeprowadzono spacery narracyjne. Badanie ujawniło, że: a) tytuł własności gruntów uzyskany w ramach wdrażania programu jest postrzegany jako warunek wstępny uczestnictwa w programie; b) kwestia wiedzy na temat ograniczeń społeczności páramo jest głównym problemem w przypadku osób starszych, którzy uważają taką wiedzę za kluczowy aspekt, jeśli chodzi o utrzymanie spójności danej społeczności. Wnioskujemy, że mapowanie partycypacyjne jest skutecznym narzędziem służącym wyjaśnianiu obaw dotyczących ograniczeń, zasad i kontroli użytkowania gruntów oraz trwałości życia wspólnotowego, czyli elementów, które należy uwzględnić przy wdrażaniu PES.
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