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Geologia w sztuce Wyspy Wielkanocnej

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EN
Easter Island (Rapa Nui) lies on the Pacific (27°S and 109°W). The art of Easter Island is widely known around the world. The very shape of the characteristic figures is immediately associated with this Pacific island even if the circumstances of their creation are unknown. Although the art of Easter Island is closely linked with its geology, this fact is rarely highlighted. Guidebooks and brochures focus on historical and anthropological aspects, only occasionally mentioning the name of the rock a specific archaeological site or object was made of. However, the geology of Easter Island can be discovered precisely through its cultural monuments. The art of Easter Island is not limited to the moai, which means figures but also includes ahu – ceremonial platforms, pukao, i.e. the hat-like topknots of the figures, numerous sculptures with entirely different characteristics than the typical moai, petroglyphs, stone vessels for water or mineral dyes, stone cushions, heads of harpoons and arrows, blades and fishing hooks made of obsidian. Actually, the entire culture and art of the island was linked to objects made of stone. Geotourism connected with the art of a particular place and the rocks and minerals used to create that art is another possible step in the development of geological tourism. Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is one of the places where art is inextricably linked with local geology. Both the choice of materials to make the tools and the use of specific rocks to create the most characteristic sculptures in the world resulted from the geological conditions of the island. A few examples, presented in this paper, of how the geology of Rapa Nui influenced its art show that the island’s geology can also be studied through its material culture.
PL
Geoturystyka jako dział turystyki stała się jedną z poważniejszych dziedzin turystyki. W ostatnich latach wydzielono wiele obszarów i stanowisk geoturystycznych w różnych częściach świata. Oprócz obszarów stricte geoturystycznych, turyści zainteresowani geologią biorą udział np. w wycieczkach geologicznych po miastach, gdzie poznają skały, z których wykonano budynki, mury, chodniki, pomniki nagrobne itp. Kolejnym krokiem w rozwoju turystyki geologicznej może być również geoturystyka związana ze sztuką danego miejsca i wykorzystywanymi do jej wytwarzania skałami i minerałami. Jednym z miejsc gdzie sztuka nierozerwalnie łączy się z lokalną geologią jest Wyspa Wielkanocna (Rapa Nui). Zarówno dobór materiałów do wykonania narzędzi, jak wykorzystanie konkretnych skał do tworzenia najbardziej charakterystycznych rzeźb na świecie wynikały z uwarunkowań geologicznych wyspy. Kilka podanych poniżej przykładów wpływu geologii Rapa Nui na jej sztukę pokazuje, że geologię wyspy można poznawać również poprzez jej kulturę materialną.
Contributors
References
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Publication order reference
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.ojs-doi-10_17951_b_2017_72_2_73-96
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