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Historia zlodowacenia archipelagu Svalbard od późnego vistulianu do współczesności

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The glacial history of the Svalbard archipelago is often a hot topic for researches, but the articles usually refer to a particular piece of Svalbard. The authors of this work studied many scientific articles based on the researches to find and collect this history.Svalbard archipelago is located in the Arctic, at the edge of the continental shelf of Europe. The end of shelf boundary noted occurrence of ice caps in the past glaciations. In turn, the main elements of the landscape of the archipelago are glaciers that are currently in a recession. Spitsbergen (the biggest island of the archipelago) sets the limit of Pleistocene glaciations, and the current state of glaciers allows determining the place where the recession is intense.The main aim of the authors in this study is to show this history only from the late Vistulian to the late Holocene (the beginning of 21st century). Interstadials and Stadials start time varies, as their duration in different places, according to various authors. It is very hard to collect all information and describe this history. By knowing the history of glaciation, we can distinguish in the late Vistulian: Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Bølling/Older Dryas/Allerød and Younger Dryas (YD). LGM was the stadial in which was the maximum extent of ice sheet in late Vistulian. After this period, ice sheet began to retreat from the continental shelf. In turn, YD was the stadial in which the last advance of glaciers took place, about 11 000 years BC. In the Holocene we can distinguish Holocene Climatic Optimum (in the meantime short Cooling Holocene), Revdalen Stadial, Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age (LIA) and 20th century warming. The maximum extent of glaciers in Holocene was in LIA. In LIA, the extent of glaciers was bigger than in YD. In 20th century a warming started and continues until now.
Svalbard jest obszarem, gdzie zachowały się w różnym stopniu „ślady” zdarzeń glacjalnych. Dowodami ich wystąpienia są między innymi osady oraz formy glacjalne i fluwioglacjalne (np. Boulton 1979; Boulton i in. 1982; Landvik i in. 1998; Mangerud i in. 1998; Pękala, Repelewska-Pękalowa 1990; Lindner, Marks 1993ab; Ingólfsson, Landvik 2013). Bliskość tego obszaru w stosunku do centrów zlodowaceń powodowała, że kolejne epizody glacjalne „zamazywały ślady” poprzednich, niszcząc je lub przekształcając (np. Landvik i in. 1992; Mangerud i in. 1998; Zagórski 2007). Po deglacjacji następował zazwyczaj okres intensyfikacji działania procesów nieglacjalnych (paraglacjalnych), np. morskich, peryglacjalnych (Mercier, Laffly 2005; Strzelecki 2011; Zagórski i in. 2012). Stąd najlepiej zachowały się pozostałości najmłodszych zdarzeń i epizodów glacjalnych, np. małej epoki lodowej (np. Baranowski 1977abc; Lindner Marks 1993b; Werner 1993; Wójcik, Ziaja 1999; Reder 1996ab;  Birkenmajer, Łuczkowska 1997; Svendsen Mangerud 1997; Zagórski i in. 2008, 2012; Rodzik i in. 2013).
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