Chlorogenic acids – their properties, occurrence and analysis
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Chlorogenic acids (CQAs), the esters of caffeic acid and quinic acid, are biologically important phenolic compounds present in many plant species. Nowadays much is known from their pro-health properties, including anti-cancer activity. Yet, the supposition that they may be helpful in fighting obesity and modify glucose-6-phosphatase involved in glucose metabolism have led to a revival of research on CQAs properties and their natural occurrence. Much attention is also paid to the proper analysis of CQAs content in plants and plant products due to the fact that the main CQAs representative in nature i.e. 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is commonly employed as a quality marker in the control of various natural products.The common procedures used so far for CQAs determination in plants involve conventional long lasting solvent extraction realized at higher temperatures prior to chromatographic analysis. The drawbacks associated to the conventional extraction techniques have led to the search for new alternative extraction processes that additionally could improve extracts quality. The latter is particularly important as regards CQAs applications, and the fact that these compounds easily transform/degrade to others. According to reports, the conventional heating of 5-CQA in the presence of water causes its isomerization and transformation. The reports prove that 5-CQA not only isomerizes to 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, but also undergoes other transformations such as esterification and reactions with water. Hence, in the attempt to improve the process of chlorogenic acids extraction and to make it more effective and environmentally friendly, innovative so-called "enhanced" techniques of extraction have been recently developed and applied. To guarantee the proper analysis of compounds with very similar properties forming the chlorogenic acids family and their numerous transformation/degradation products, hyphenated techniques, in particular LC-MS, are currently being used.
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