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1999 | 3 |
Article title

Cooling effects of a river and sea breeze on the thermal environment: a case of Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

Title variants
Ochładzający wpływ rzeki i bryzy morskiej na warunki termiczne na przykładzie Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malezja
Languages of publication
A series of sea breeze observations have been carried out along the Terengganu river in the
state of Terengganu on the east coast of the Peninsular of Malaysia. These observations were
carried out during the north-east monsoon months ofNovember and December, 1993. Wind and
temperature data were measured at the height of about I.S m above the ground along the three
traverses on both sides of the river which is approximately 10 km long that perpendicular to the
coast and then the results were presented in a horizontal cross-section. Generally, the formation of
sea breeze of the speed of ~ 4.1 ms-1 was observed capable in reducing the ambient air temperature
of about 2.0° to 4.0°C. Although the effect of sea breeze can be traced further inland along the
river, its cooling effects, however, were well marked at the estuary of the Terengganu river than at
the 7th km interior area of Kuala Terengganu. The difference in the temperature decrease was
observed in the order of 1.7° and 2.4°C from the inland to the coastal areas, respectively. During
the sea breeze episode, most of the coastal field stations indicated a slower temperature increase
than the field stations located in the interior area. Furthermore, the effect of sea breeze in reducing
ambient air temperature was well marked above the river (stations on bridges) than stations on both
sides of the river. Simultaneously, an overall time-lag increase in relative humidity was observed
during the fall of ambient air temperature, owing to the effect of sea breeze. In general, the
establishment of sea breeze cooling effect was significantly felt about 3 to 6 hours period i.e.,
between 14.00 and 20.00 (Malaysian Local Time) which was varied between stations; longer period
was experienced by stations located at or near the coastal area than stations further inland.
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