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1997 | 2 |
Article title

Źródła Wyżyny Lubelskiej i Roztocza

Title variants
Springs of the Lublin Upland and the Roztocze
Languages of publication
In the hydrogeological image of Poland the Lublin Upland and the Roztocze stand out
with numerous springs of differentiated yields. In the active water circulation zone of this
region there are different carbonate rocks. In the near-surface zone there are mostly maastricht
deposits developed into lime silicate rocks, marls or chalk which are locally covered with
Paleocene gaizes, Neogene limestones and sandstones. In the plateau areas these rocks are
covered with a thin layer of sand-dust sediments and locally with a thick loess cover. The
usable underground water horizon occurs in the Cretaceous carbonate rocks and locally even
in the Tertiary and Quaternary ones. Differentiated tectonic systems of oriented cracks strongly
affect the underground water circulation and the occurence of springs.
About 1550 springs were recorded in the Lublin Upland and the Roztocze of which about
1230 are still functioning. The springs with a small yield are the most common for 57% of
outflows do not reach 1 1/s. All the springs supplied with water from the upper aquiferhorizons existing in the highest parts of drainage basins are in this group. The yield 1-10 l/s
appears in 29% of springs; only 13% of springs exceeds 10 l/s. 160 springs of the yield above
10 l/s were recorded in the researched area. Out of these 11 springs permanently exceed 100 l/s
and 8 such springs are located in the Roztocze and 2 more in the vicinity of this region.
From the hydrological point of view the springs exceeding 10 l/s are of greatest significance
They supply about 78% of water flowing out of the springs in the Lublin Upland and the
Roztocze hence they decide about the quantity of water flowing in the rivers during the
precipitation-free period. In the Roztocze and in the western part of the Lublin Upland about
38% of water directly derives from the springs and the comparable quantity of water inflows
to the rivers through the direct river-bed drainage. In the precipitation-free periods 100% of
river water is derived from the underground water resources of which springs supply between
40-100%. In the eastern part of the Lublin Upland the spring water supplying the rivers is
decidedly lower.
Spring water from the Lublin Upland and the Roztocze is of high quality. The places
of outflows and spring niches should be protected against pollution and devastation. In such
places physico-chemical and bacteriological properties of underground water should not be
changed in any way.
Na podstawie bogatych archiwalnych i terenowych materiałów przedstawiono warunki
występowania, rozmieszczenie i wydajność źródeł na Wyżynie Lubelskiej i Roztoczu oraz
oceniono rolę źródeł w zasilaniu rzek wodami podziemnymi.
Physical description
Document Type
Publication order reference
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