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1997 | 1 |
Article title

Wpływ Kopalni Węgla Brunatnego ,,Bełchatów" na stosunki wodne małej zlewni nizinnej

Title variants
The influence of the Brown Coal Mine "Bełchatów" on water condistions of a small lowland basin
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Research on hydrological changes caused by man has been carried out in the Kręcica
basin (A = 62 sq km), situated in the Bełchatów region (Fig. l). Three river gauges,
a meteorological station, 8 precipitation stations and 9 groundwater observation wells were
established within the study area. Hydrometeorological observations and measurements were
carried out regularly and the groundwater level was checked once a week. In addition to
basic hydrometeorological monitoring, the study involved: annual hydrographic mapping,
preparation of lithological map with hydrogeological sections, regular flow rate measurement,
examination of ground permeability and moinsture.
The main aim of the study was to grasp moment of the changes in hydrological
characteristics, especially of hydrographic network, griundwater and discharge. The research
led to the establishment of a formula of water balance of a basin disturbed by man.
The basic aim of the formula, was to pinpoint in water retention following the development
of a cone of depression created by the brown coal mine in Bełchatów.The analyses presented
in this paper indicate, that the changes are quantitave and concern retention in saturation
zone and groundwater flow (Tab. l). The result also revealed the moment when a radical
disturbance of the natural hydrological cycle in the study area occured.
Analyses of climatological features (precipitation, evapotranspiration) have not indicated
significant permanent changes. However a significal reduction has been identified when discharge,
in particular groundwater discharge (Fig. 4) and a discharge coefficient (Fig. 5) were considered.
Explicit changes of retention in saturation zone have also been found (Fig. 6). The results show
that the 1983 was crucial in the functioning of the basin. This conclusion has been confirmed by
doubly mass curves of annual precipitation and total flow and groundwater flow (Fig. 7). It has
been found that decrease in flow caused changes of inclination of the curves.
Natural structure precipitation, flow water losses and retention have been replaced by
a pattern created by intemtional human activity. The mine drainage, has led to the lowering
of groundwater levels and to the development of cone of depression. The cone of depression
is increasing gradually and comprises a growing part ofthe Kręcica basin (8-9% in 1980---1982,
30% in 1990). It has led to changes of ground and surface alimentation of watercourses and
has caused water escape from river channels. Most of the study area has become one
withought surface and groundwater flow.
The hydrological changes caused by the mining enterprise, and presented here, are
certainly not complete. It should be stressed that the changes are continuing and althought
their direction is known, the effects cannot be predicted accurately.
W artykule autorzy zmierzają do przedstawienia wpływu antropopresji na mechanizm obiegu
wody w zlewni K.ręcicy. Ukazano kierunki i siłę zmian warunków wodnych w latach 1981-1989.
Szczegółowej analizie poddano zmiany sieci hydrograficznej, wód podziemnych i odpływu. Podjęto
również próbę analizy bilansu wodnego zlewni. Przeprowadzone badania dowiodły, że wyrażna
zmiana w sposobie obiegu wody w zlewni nastąpiła w 1983 r. Należy zatem uznać, iż od tego
momentu charakter krążenia wody w dorzeczu istotnie zależy od działalności człowieka.
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