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1997 | 1 |
Article title

Analiza porównawcza składu fizykochemicznego wód opadowych, porowych i gruntowych

Title variants
Comparative analysis of physicochemical composition of rain, cavity and ground water
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Physicochemical composition of rain, cavity and ground water is presented in this paper.
Cavity water (solutions) was extracted with the use of the pressure method from
clayey-sandyand sandy deposits taken from the Łódż region (Rypułtowice) and the Bełchatów
region (Kałduny) - Fig. 1.
The highest total mineralization was characteristic of cavity water. The lowest mineralization
was typical of rain water. Averager proportions of mineralization of rain, ground and cavity
water account for l : 20 : 35 (Rypułtowice) and l : 13 : 20 (Kałduny). Maximal total mineralization
of cavity water reached 1059 mg . dm-J (till) and 1244 mg . dm-J (sandy soil), whereas
mineralization of rain water was about 36-38 -mg· dm-J.
The reaction of rain water was acidic and its pH was found to be 3,9--4,1. The top
ground layer which contains some carbonates acts as a buffer that changes the reaction of
infIltrating rain water to neutral or slightly alcaline. Cavity water pH was between 6,4-8,4
and ground water pH was 7,1-7,8.Rain water was triionic of the HCO) - SO. - Ca type and ground water was tri- and
tetraionic of the HCO) - SO. - Ca (Rypułtowice) and the HCO) - SO. - Ca - K type
(Kałduny), respectively. The most complex composition was characteristic of cavity water
(tetra- and pentaionic water) which represented two hydrochemical types: Cl - SO. - Ca - Mg
(Rypułtowice) and HCO) - SO. - Cl - Ca - Mg (Kałduny). HC01-, SOl-, Ca2+ predominated
in all types of water, whereas other ions, such as CI-, K + and Mg 2+ modyfied considerably
the water composition and hydrochemical type (Tabs 3-5). Unnaturally large amounts of
SO.2-, CI- and K+ in the ground water were assumed to be associated with antropogenic
pollution, mainly from areał and point sources (e.g. from cesspit leakage in Kałduny). It is
interesting to observe the distribution of nitrates in cavity water. In Rypułtowice a one meter
thick till layer causes the decrease in a very high NO)- concentration of 595 mg . dm-l below
the top of the impermeable till (Fig. 2). The till layer acts as a barrier which hinders migration
of the pollution from the ground surface. The concentration of nitrates in the sandy soil in
Kałduny was different, and varied with a depth, with the tendency decrease, in a way that
gave an image of a wave of NO)- moving downwards (Fig. 3). Due to the lack of an isolating
layer, the pollution was able to migrate freely to ground water.
Physical description
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