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Ekstremalne stany wód podziemnych w środkowej Polsce w wieloleciu 1951-2000

Title variants
Extreme groundwater levels in Central Poland in 1951-2000
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Artykuł powstał w wyniku prac badawczych prowadzonych w ramach Projektu Zamawianego MNiI (K091/P04/2004/11).
The aim of this study is to present an analysis of sequence of extreme annual groundwater
levels in central part of Poland. Data were obtained from 55 groundwater levels (Fig. I),which were monitored in Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Every sequence
has its own theoretically fitted distribution, counted autocorrelation and the number of
statistically significant, subsequent coefficients (with shifts from I to 5).Annual minima are best approximated (Fig. 3) by Fisher's-Tippet's distribution (E3).
Furthermore, in some cases log-normal, two- and three-parametric distributions (LN2 and
LN3) were fitted. It is clearly seen in spatial distribution (Fig. 4) in Pilica river basin that the
participation of Fisher's-Tippet's distribution is relatively smaller in this region than in the
others. Mean autocorrelation of annual minima (Fig. 5) is equal to 0.59, which means that the
levels have big inertia. Annual maxima are best approximated by (Fig. 6) log-normal, twoparametric
distribution (LN2). Except this one, in some cases: Gumbell (El), three-parametric
log-normal (LN3) and Pearson type III distribution (P3) are fitted. On the north of the
investigated area in the spatial arrangement the concentration of LN3 distribution can be
clearly seen. The sequences of maximum groundwater levels are characterized by much smaller
inertia than sequences of minimum values. Looking at their spatial arrangements (Fig. 8) it
cannot be omitted that high RaI values (> 0.8) concern the same region, but not the same
wells as in case of minima. Low RaI values « 0.2) are rather evenly distributed.
Basing on the approximated distributions, water levels of given probability (of 50% and
10%) of exceeding (for maximum values) and unreachables (for minimum values) were
calculated. It allowed to create diagrams (Fig. 9) of the frequency of week-long floods and low
flows during the long lasting period. After slightly dry 50s the shortages were supplemented
and wet years began (late 60s to the beginning of 80s). Following years belong to a dry period
with its apogee in 1990-1993. Afterwards we observe some years of supplementation of aquifers
and the beginning of floody period just before the beginning of a new millennium. As in case
of other hydrometeorological characteristics we can observe its cyclic nature.
W artykule omówiono skład fIzykochemiczny opadów atmosferycznych, wód gruntowych
i roztworów porowych. Wody (roztwory) porowe uzyskano za pomocą metody ciśnieniowej
z prób gruntów gliniasto-piaszczystych i piaszczystych, pobranych w regionie łódzkim i bełchatowskim.
Ustalenie składu jonowego wód pozwoliło na określenie ich typów hydrochemicznych
oraz wzajemnych związków między poszczególnymi rodzajami wód. Wskazano również na
czynniki antropogeniczne wpływające na zmiany składu wód opadowych, porowych i gruntowych
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