Formation of bacterial biofilms ? the essence of the matter and mechanisms of interactions
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Bacterial colonisation of surfaces and biofilm formation have important consequences in medicine (contamination of catheters, prostheses, and artificial organs) and in food industry (contamination of food product lines). A biofilm can be defined as a matrix enclosed bacteria populations? adherent to each other and/or to surfaces. The process of biofilm formation includes following steps: adhesion of cells, formation of microcolony and, finally, biofilm formation. Bacterial biofilm formation is influenced by a number of factors, such as: extracellular production of polymeric substances (mainly polysaccharides and proteins), hydrophobicity of cell wall, growth phase, environmental factors (pH, temperature, kind of media, ionic strength, polyvalent ions), surface roughness and presence of signalling compounds. Hygienic aspects of biofilm formation and adhesion of bacteria to eukariotic cells were also described in this paper.
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K. Czaczyk, Katedra Biotechnologii i Mikrobiologii Zywnosci, Akademia Rolnicza, ul. Wojska Polskiego 48, Poznan, Poland