The report presents the most perspective directions of recent studies within the area of applied biocatalysis that are aimed at widening of the scope of its applications in diverse fields, from the industrial chemical synthesis to health and environment protection. Both known types of natural biocatalysts and the artificial catalytic molecules derived from them have been described. Current advances in the investigations into extremophilic organisms and their unusual enzymes have been also shown. The highest attention has been focused on some sophisticated methods of the improvement of natural catalytic proteins, particularly on their directed molecular in vitro evolution. The latest methods of enzyme immobilization and reaction medium engineering that significantly increased the number of their practical applications have been also reported.