Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) is a crucial enzyme which converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) into active tri-iodothyronine (T3). There has been strong evidence that the metabolism of thyroid hormones is disturbed in some neoplastic tissues such as thyroid, renal, and breast cancer. However, there are few available data about D1 enzyme activity in benign tumors such as hemangioma, which is the most common primary liver tumor. Hence this study aimed to determine the enzymatic activity of D1 in hemangiomas in relation to healthy liver tissue. Seven tumors and healthy control tissues were obtained from patients who had liver resection due to hemangioma. The activity was assessed by measurement of radioactive iodine released by deiodination catalyzed by D1. It was found that D1 activity was significantly lower in the hemagiomas than in the healthy surrounding tissue (p = 0.0017). The results indicated that thyroid hormones play important roles not only in the regulation of cell metabolism, but also in cell growth, division, and apoptosis. The active form T3 acts through its nuclear receptors and influences the up- and down-regulation of target genes. Healthy liver tissue expresses a high level of D1, but disturbed D1 activity may result in changes in the local concentration of T3 which may impair gene transcription. These finding demonstrate a low enzymatic activity of D1 in liver hemangioma and suggest an as yet unknown role of thyroid hormones in this type of benign liver tumor.