Experimental hybridisation between X0 and XY chromosome races in the grasshopper Podisma sapporensis Shir. (Orthoptera, Acrididae). I. Cytological analysis of embryos and F1 hybrids
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The results of experimental hybridisation between some chromosome subraces belonging to the X0 and XY chromosome races of the brachypterous grasshopper P. sapporensis are presented. Pre-zygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms in experimental pairs were not confirmed. In crossings of XY-standard x X0-standard and XY-standard x X0-Naganuma chromosome subraces, a zygotic barrier has been found. All embryos of XY-standard x X0-standard crosses and the vast majority of embryos of XY-standard x X0-Naganuma crosses were obtained from female diploid or haploid/diploid cells as a result of parthenogenesis. In very rare cases, when the zygotic barriers had been surmounted, normal embryo heterozygotes and a F1 hybrid generation were obtained in XY-standard x X0-Naganuma crosses. On the contrary, crosses between the XY-Tanno and X0-standard subraces gave viable offspring in spite of many chromosome differences such as a X-A translocation and fixed pericentric inversions in four pairs of autosomes. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis that chromosomal differences play a key role in restricting gene flow between X0 and XY races of P. sapporensis. The presence of crossing barriers explains the phenomena of the purity of the X0 and XY chromosomes races.
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Alexander G. Bugrov, Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia