In this paper we present the structure and describe serological properties of the O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis O13 lipopolysaccharide, which contains a unique component, an amide of D-galacturonic acid (D-GalA) with an unusual amino acid N-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-L-lysine (alaninolysine, AlaLys). Selective chemical degradations of either GalA or AlaLys resulted in the loss of the serological reactivity of the polysaccharide with anti-O serum against P. mirabilis O13. Neither synthetic stereoisomers of AlaLys nor the isolated amide of GalA with AlaLys inhibited the reaction of the O-antiserum with the homologous lipopolysaccharide. The O-antiserum did not cross-react with the lipopolysaccharide of Providencia alcalifaciens O23 containing an amide of D-glucuronic acid with AlaLys. These data showed that both uronic acid and amino acid components of the amide play an important role in manifesting the P. mirabilis O13-specificity, but the full specific epitope also includes also another OPS component(s). A cross-reactivity of anti-O13 serum with some other P. mirabilis strains was observed and attributed to a common heat-stable antigen(s) different from the lipopolysaccharide.