Sodium orthovanadate affects growth of some human epithelial cancer cells (A549, HTB44, DU145,)
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Within the concentration range of 1-20 FM, orthovanadate (Na3VO4) demonstrated a time and dose-dependent inhibition of autocrine growth of the human carcinoma cell lines A549 (lung), HTB44 (kidney) and DU145 (prostate), as compared to appropriate controls (without Na3VO4). The investigation was conducted by two methods: staining with N-hexa-methylpararosaniline (crystal violet=CV) or bromide3-(4,5-dimethyltio-azo-2)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazole (MTT). In 5, 10 and 20 FM of Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, the mean values of these two tests for A549 were approximately 40%, 45%or 65%as compared to the appropriate controls. HTB44 had the greatest opportunity (statistically insignificant) at lower vanadium concentrations (up to 10 FM), whereas at 20 FM growth inhibition of these cells was approximately 50% of the controls. DU145 showed approximately 33%, 65% and 98% growth inhibition for 5, 10 and 20 FM of Na3VO4, respectively Additionally, hypothetical curves obtained by a MANOVA test based on the CV results after 72 h incubation with Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, and an example of a time-dependent effect of Na3VO4 on A549 cells, were also presented. Sodium orthovanadate was also examined for its cytotoxic capabilities, especially its ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis; the results were compared with the effect of paclitaxel. The target cells were dyed by differential staining (HOECHST33258 and propidium iodide) after 3 h and 24 h (DU145) or 3 h and 72 h (A549) of incubation with the vanadium compound. Contrary to the two cancer cell lines (viable, apoptotic or necrotic in experimental conditions), the renal HTB44 cells were insensitive up to 15 FM Na3VO4 concentrations. After 3 h incubation with Na3VO4, both lung (A549) and prostate (DU145) cancer cells showed a slight but significant reduction in the percentage of viable cells, and an increased amount of apoptotic cells. In contrast to the lung cells, DU145 prostate cells after 24 h were more sensitive to paclitaxel than to sodium orthovanadate. In the case of lung cells, the time of incubation was prolonged (to 72 h) to allow for a study of the effect of orthovanadate in greater detail. After 72 h of incubation with Na3VO4 or paclitaxel, A549 showed a similar level of viable cells (25-32% of total cultured cells); however, the percentage of apoptotic cells was higher in the case of A549 cells . ca 36% for both drugs, but the concentration of Na3VO4 was significantly greater than paclitaxel levels.
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Anna M. Kordowiak, Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland