The development of microspore culture methods in the Poaceae family has received considerable attention in recent years. Isolated microspore culture can be induced in vitro to switch their development from gametophytic to a sporophytic patway, resulting in embryoid or callus formation. Different stresses like cold or heat shock and nitrogen starvation have been identified as the major trigger in inducing microspore embryogenesis. Microspore culture appears to be a promising toll for future production of double haploids in cereals. Isolated microspore culture has several advantages over anther culture in genetic manipulation and haploid study, such as: direct observation of microspore development, unique possibility to study plant embryogenesis, easier in vitro selection and mutation, easier transformation of single cells. Moreover, isolated microspores are the most efficient way of double haploid regeneration. Many factors such as genotypes, physiological status of donor plants, stage of microspores development, pretreatment of anthers or spikes, method of microspores isolation, culture media, nurse culture and culture conditions, have a great influence on microspore culture. These and other problems concerning in vitro culture of isolated microspore are discussed in this review.