Somaclonal variation commonly occurs during in vitro plant regeneration and may introduce unintended changes in numerous plant characters. In order to assess the range of tissue-culture-responsive changes on the biochemical level, the metabolic profiles of diploid and tetraploid cucumber R1 plants regenerated from leaf-derived callus were determined. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used for monitoring of 48 metabolites and many significant changes were found in metabolic profiles of these plants as compared to a seed-derived control. Most of the changes were common to diploids and tetraploids and were effects of tissue culture. However, tetraploids showed quantitative changes in 14 metabolites, as compared to regenerated diploids. These changes include increases in serine, glucose-6P, fructose-6P, oleic acid and shikimic acid levels. Basing on this study we conclude that the variation in metabolic profiles does not correlate directly with the range of genome changes in tetraploids.