The role, basic concepts and development of bioprocess engineering have been presented. Biochemical engineers have always served as a bridge between discoveries involving enzymes, cells and biomass at the lab scale to implementation of valuable bioproducts on the commercial scale. Biochemical engineering discipline was initiated focusing on problems concerning bioreactor design and the optimisation and the purification of natural products. Nowadays, this discipline is a field undergoing a rapid change and diversification. Key concepts in transport phenomena, kinetics and thermodynamics, as well as proficiency in the application of mathematical tools in process modelling are used to bridge the gap between the intellectual potential of the gene to the manufacturing of industrial products.