Genetic relationships among 20 elite wheat genotypes were studied using microsatellite markers and pedigree analysis. A total of 93 polymorphic bands were obtained with 25 microsatellite primer pairs. Coefficient of parentage (COP) values were calculated using parentage information at the expansion level of 5. The pedigree-based similarity (mean 0.115, range 0.00?0.53) was lower than the similarity assessed using microsatellite markers (mean 0.70, range 0.47?0.91). Similarity estimates were used to construct dendrograms by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Clustering of genotypes in respect of marker-based similarity revealed two groups. Genotype PBW442 diverged and appeared as distinct from all other genotypes in both marker-based and pedigree-based analysis. The correlation of COP values with genetic similarity values based on microsatellite markers is low (r = 0.285, p < 0.05). The results indicate a need to develop wheat varieties with a diverse genetic background and to incorporate new variability into the existing wheat gene pool.