This paper reviews last three decades of work on in vitro cultures of unpollinated ovaries or ovules. During in vitro gynogenesis, plants are produced from embryos or callus tissue of haploid (parhtenogenetic or apogamic) origin. Thus, in vitro gynogenesis offers an efficient method for plant breeders who want to obtain haploid plants and homozygous lines. Stability of DH-lines and very limited albinism of regenerated plants are major advantages of the method. The limiting factors are genotype effects in particular species and relatively high labour compared to another or microspore cultures. Since 1976, the studies on in vitro gynogenesis have been performed in 27 species including many crops. Furthermore, gynogenetic haploids have been routinely used in breeding programmes for sugar beet, onion and rice. Because of labour expenses, cultures of unpollinated ovaries or ovules are usually chosen when no other efficient method is available for haploid production in a given species.