Isolated microspores as a source doubled haploids of barley
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In vitro techniques for doubled haploids (DH) production allow for obtaining homozygous lines in a single generation. This is connected with shorter breeding cycle of the new variety. DH lines have a potential for being used in the selection of recombinants, stabilising of transformed lines and molecular mapping. DH lines are produced from isolated microspores through haploid embryogenesis. Microspore culture has several advantages over anther culture: it reduces the time of cultures, enables monitoring of the earliest phase of embryogenesis, allows for direct development embryos, facilitates the in vitro selection and mutation, allows for avoiding regeneration from somatic anther tissues. Moreover, microspore culture appears to be a promising tool in genetic manipulations (transformation, mutagenesis) and it can be used as a source of protoplasts and suspensions. Here we report on how to induce microspore embryogenesis, resulting in plant formation. The switch of microspore development from gametophytic to sporophytic pathway has been stimulated by various stress factors like cold and heat shock, starvation. Stress treatment not only stops pollen development but also re-programmes the microspore towards embryo formation. The effects of various parameters including pretreatment, carbohydrates and nurse culture have been investigated. After optimising the culture conditions we were able to regenerate high number of fertile plants.
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S. Oleszczuk, ZBiCR, Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roslin, Radzikow, 05-870 Blonie, Poland