The behaviour of a multiple sex chromosome system in Dundocoris flavilineatus (Heteroptera: Aradidae: Carventinae) that originated by autosome-sex chromosome fusion
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The nominate subspecies of Dundocoris flavilineatus Jacobs occurs in indigenous evergreen forests over a wide area in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It has a chromosome number of 2n = 28XY, which is the ancestral number for the genus. D. flavilineatus ndabeniensis, which comprises an isolated sibling population at Ndabeni forest in northern KwaZulu-Natal, possesses a multiple sex chromosome system, presumably a X1X2Y system and has a chromosome number of 2n = 27X1X2Y. The system probably originated when an autosome and the Y-chromosome of the 28XY karyotype fused. In contrast to the situation previously described in the XY1Y2 system of D. nodulicarinus the autosomal and original Y-chromosome parts of the neo-Y chromosome seem to have a reciprocal influence on each other in terms of structure and staining intensity during prophase I. The autosomal part of the neo-Y adopts a granulate, heteropycnotic, linear structure while the original Y part is less globular than usual in structure. The neo-X chromosome (= X2) behaves like, and stays isopycnotic with the autosomes. It is connected to the neo-Y by terminal association ? probably a terminal chiasma. The sex chromosome system is post-reductional and a sex chromosome trivalent is present in all metaphase II cells. The origin and behaviour of the neo-X1X2Y sex chromosome system in D. flavilineatus ndabeniensis are described, discussed, illustrated with photomicrographs and compared to the XY1Y2 system in D. nodulicarinus. Idiograms of the karyotypes of the two subspecies of D. flavilineatus are also presented.
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D.H. Jacobs, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa