Miscanthus sinensis is a promising species for biomass production. Influences of genetic and nongenetic factors on androgenesis induction efficiency were investigated. This is the first report on successful induction of pollen-derived callus in M. sinensis. The callus yield was strongly affected by genotype. A beneficial influence of cold pretreatment of spikes on androgenesis induction was observed. The highest yield of calli was obtained in cultures on a modified C17 medium. The results suggest that the high callus yield might be caused by the late culture initiation. The beginning of anther culture at the end of the flowering season caused a 17-fold increase in callus yield, in comparison to culture initiated at the height of the flowering season (August). It is likely, however, that the efficiency of androgenesis induction in the case of M. sinensis anther culture beginning in October could be related to a positive influence of growing donor plants in conditions of cooler and shorter day, i.e. 11-h day with temperature around 11oC and 13-h night with temperature around 5oC. Results of this study can significantly support the development of effective methods of M. sinensis haploidization, which could be used in crop improvement by breeding.