FRTL-5 cell line is a cloned epithelial follicular cell line from Fischer rat thyroids. This cell line expresses many of the thyroid differentiated markers in vitro. Their growth and function depend on thyrotropin (TSH) as the main regulatory hormone. In this astereological analysis, the authors concentrate on FRTL-5 nuclei as the most vulnerable part of the cell. Using morphometrical variables, they wished to discover the morphologically identifiable sign of transformation of FRTL-5 cells after irradiation and to study the effect of different TSH concentrations. FRTL-5 cells were grown in a medium of 4 different concentrations of TSH (0, 0.1, 1, 10 mU/ml) and irradiated with 0 Gy, 2 Gy, and 4 Gy. The results showed that the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio decreases after irradiation with doses of 4 Gy or if TSH was included in the medium. The nuclear maximum diameter of FRTL-5 cells increased with higher concentrations of TSH more obviously after irradiation with 4 Gy than with 2 Gy. On the basis of astereological analysis, it was concluded that different concentrations of TSH and irradiation exert an effect especially upon FRTL-5 cell nuclei. The possible transformation of FRTL-5 cells after culturing in TSH medium and after irradiation could be confirmed by injection into an animal of the Fischer strain.