Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) is a family of transcription factors composed of seven members. Gene-targeted mice of each STAT family protein displayed defective responses to cytokines, demonstrating an important role in cytokine-mediated biological responses. However, unlike the mice lacking other STAT proteins, Stat3-deficient mice died during their early embryogenesis. Therefore, in an attempt to avoid the lethality and assess the role of Stat3 in cytokine-mediated functions in mouse adult tissues, conditional gene targeting utilizing a Cre-loxP system was achieved. By this method, Stat3 was disrupted in several types of tissue, including T cells, macrophages, skin, and mammary gland. Analyses of these Stat3-mutant mice revealed important roles of Stat3 in biological functions in each tissue.