Luliberin (luteinizing hormone releasing-hormone, LHRH) is the key regulatory decapeptide that controls reproduction in mammals. It is secreted by the hypothalamus and after binding to a specific receptor it initiates a series of events leading to the liberation of lutropin (LH) and finally steroid sex hormones. In some case, the infertility in females and males may be explained by mutations of the LH or LHRH receptor genes. Immunisation of animals with LHRH conjugates induces high titres of antibodies, resulting in the cessation of the biological function of the hormone and, in the end, in a temporary infertility. In this review, the application of LHRH vaccines as birth control for women and men was presented. Being effective and inexpensive, semisynthetic LHRH vaccines are useful in the animal breading for immunocastration,. The best vaccines are totally synthetic LHRH ones, which are much safer than the CG- or LH-vaccines based on antigens isolated from human material, which may be contaminated with pathogens.