One of the possibilities of the conservation biology is the in vitro culture method. The usefulness of in vitro culture methods of spore planting and prothallium storage of rare, threatened and protected fern species were tested. Spors of Asplenium adulterinum, A. cuneifolium, A. septentrionale and Polypodium vulgare were collected from sporophytes growing in the natural habitats of Lower Silesia area in 1996. The collected spores were disinfected and the aseptic spores were cultured in flasks containing 1/4 MS solid medium. After three to eight months, the spores germinated, giving rise to a filamentous gametophytes. Six to eight months later, spotophytes could be observed in these cultures. The in vitro method gives the possibility to investigate the special characteristics of life cycle and breeding system of fern species. It is possible to collect fern spores from natural habitats and use them to obtain populations, which will allow to preserve the fern population in cultivation in the Botanical Garden of the Wroclaw University.