The calpain system orginally comprised molecules: two Ca2+-dependent proteases, mu-calpain and m-calpain, and a third polypeptide, calpastatin, whose only known function is to inhibit the two calpains. This proteolytic system plays a key role in the tenderisation process that occurs during post-mortem storage of meat under refrigerated conditioning. Their polymorphism is examined from the point of view of their effect on corresponding production traits. The calpain genes are investigated as potential candidate genes for a quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting meat tenderness. In this study a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found within intron 14 of the bovine CAPN1 gene, being transition CT at position 4685 nt (consensus sequence ? GenBank No. AF 248054), as this mutation creates a new FokI restriction site detected with PCR-RFLP analysis. This sequence fragment of the SNP position has already been deposited in the GenBank database under accession No. AY639597. The RFLP-FokI polymorphism was studied in 141 bulls of seven breeds, including the native Polish Red (PR, preserved), and Polish Black-and White (BW) breed. The frequency of alleles T and C varied between the breeds considered, the mean reaching 0.38 and 0.62, respectively. Associations between CAPN1/FokI gene polymorphism and meat production traits were studied in BW (n = 84) young bulls. In the animals of the TT genotype the lean share in valuable cuts (%) was found more favourable than in CC animals.