Cryopreservation - a tool for long-term storage of cells, tissues and organs from in vitro culture derived
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Cryopreservation offers the possibility for long-term storage of genetic resources with maximal genotypic stability, using a minimum of space and maintenance. At present it is actively used all over the world for storage of plant material: seeds, pollen, spores, dormant buds or apical meristems in genebanks. The development of biotechnology led to the production of a new category of germplasm for cryostorage: in vitro obtain tissues, organs, embryos, special cell lines and genetically modified plant material. The maintenance of in vitro collections remains risky regarding losing accessions due to the contamination, human error or somaclonal variation. The classical slow cooling was the first standard protocol developed for hydrated plant tissues. This method is mainly used for cryopreservation of non-organized tissues, for example: cell suspensions and calli, or apices of cold-tolerant species. For differentiated structures, new cryopreservation techniques such as vitrification and encapsulation/dehydration procedures or droplet method are efficient and reliable. These freezing techniques have been successfully, routinely applied for cryopresevation of various plant material of temperate and tropical climate species. So far, cryopreservation procedures are developed for in vitro tissues and recalcitrant seeds of about 100 and 40 species, respectively.
Publication order reference
Anna Mikula, Ogrod Botaniczny Centrum Zachowania Roznorodnosci Biologicznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warszawa, Poland