Biotechnology is one of science, technique and economic areas, which develops quickly and continuously. Important role in pharmaceutical sciences plays plant biotechnology which is advanced technology applying productive potential of alive cells in industrial processes, or serving for improvement of plants using genetic or epigenetic methods. It also gives many possibilities for obtaining new sources of secondary metabolites and opens up new areas in healthcare. Apart from many medicines produced by chemical synthesis, plant-derived natural substances are still of great importance in medicine. Such substances tend to have complicated chemical structures so that their chemical synthesis is uneconomic. Plant biotechnology offers an opportunity to exploit cells, tissues and organs or whole plants by growing them in vitro and to genetically manipulate them to obtain desired compounds. The development of new areas of molecular biology, for example functional genomic, gives a possibility of comprehensive investigations of biological systems. It could contribute to enhancing the production of known and novel secondary metabolites in plant cells. Moreover, an important branch of studies is the use of genetically modified plants to obtain edible vaccines in plants, antibodies, plant-derived recombinant proteins and biologically active substances.