Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped pathogenic bacterium that was firstly isolated and cultured from biopsy specimens by Marshall and Warren in 1983.This organism is a human gastric pathogen associated with peptic ulcer disease as well as chronic gastritis. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that H. pylori is a primary risk factor for the development of intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori is the first bacterium for which the genomes of two unrelated strains (26695 and J99) have been sequenced. The genome of H. pylori is relatively low in size (1.6-1.73 Mb). In this review, we compare the organization of two sequenced H. pylori genomes. A special emphasis on genetic diversity of H. pylori including plasticity zone and cag pathogenicity island has been placed.