A single microspore cultured in vitro can be reprogrammed from the development of pollen to divisions and production of a bipolar embryo. The final effect of androgenesis in vitro is conversion of each embryo derived from microspore of a heterozygous plant into a doubled haploid plant in such a way that a population of doubled haploids fully represents the genetic variability of the preceding meiosis. DH lines have been already widely used in oilseed rape breeding. Doubled haploids are used by breeders in crossing programs in order to obtain desirable variability in progeny, and also as a part of conventional breeding. Moreover, doubled haploids in conjunction with molecular markers helped to develop the so called 'molecular breeding'.