A role of NF-B and the proteasome in autoimmunity
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Type 1 diabetes (also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes) is usually caused by T cell-mediated autoimmunity, with a prediabetic state characterized by the production of autoantibodies specific for proteins expressed by pancreatic beta cells. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a spontaneous model of type 1 diabetes with a strong genetic component that maps to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region of the genome. A specific proteasome defect has been identified in NOD mouse lymphocytes that results from down-regulation of expression of the proteasome subunit LMP2, which is encoded by a gene in the MHC genomic region. This defect both prevents the proteolytic processing required for the production and activation of the transcription factor nuclear facktor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which plays important roles in immune and inflammatory responses, as well as increases the susceptibility of the affected cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). The proteasome dysfunction is both tissue and developmental stage specific and likely contributes to disease pathogenesis and tissue targeting.
Publication order reference
T. Hayashi, Immunobilogy Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA